Ultrasonic-assisted manufacturing of new hydrogel nanocomposite biosorbent containing calcium carbonate nanoparticles and tragacanth gum for removal of heavy metal
This article reports the first incorporation of calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CC NPs) into tragacanth gum (TG) to prepare a new hydrogel nanocomposite (HNC) system using a green, safe, and eco-friendly method, ultrasound irradiation as an efficient biosorbent of heavy metal ions from wastewater. Morphological studies revealed that the surface of obtained HNCs is rough, homogeneous, and porous-like due to the embedding of CC NPs as well as sonication in comparison to the neat TG which has a smooth surface. The particle size reduction was observed for CC NPs in the matrix (from 57 to 10 nm), which is owing to the extraordinary effect of sonication on this process. Thermal stability of HNCs has been increased after using CC NPs from 8.5 wt% for TG to about 22 wt% for HNCs. The optical band gap of TG/CC HNC 5 wt% calculated to be 4.46 eV which is less than that of CC NPs (5.58 eV) and even TG (6.28 eV) and this result indicated that TG/CC HNC 5 wt% is relatively more conductive than CC NPs and TG. The nitrogen adsorption-desorption disclosed an isotherm type III of Brunauer classification for TG/CC HNC 5 wt% and the surface area has been increased from 0.7 m2.g−1 for TG to 2.3 m2.g−1 for TG/CC HNC 5 wt%. Also, the BET surface area for TG/CC HNC 5 wt% calculated to be 7.8 nm which is classified into mesoporous materials. The Pb2+ ions were significantly removed from water using TG/CC HNC 5 wt% and the removal efficiency was determined as 83% at optimized conditions (pH = 5, adsorbent dosage = 0.015 g, time = 3 h, and Pb2+ concentration = 70 mg.L−1).