Using waste materials for the improvement of the properties of inexpensive, cost-effective, and readily available polymeric matrices can be an excellent idea. In the current work, the effect of activated carbon black (ACB) obtained from waste compact discs on the morphology, wettability, and pollutant sorption capacity of polyurethane (PU) sponge was studied. The water contact angles decreased from 122° for the pure PU to 109° for the obtained PU@ACB sponge composite. The potential sorption capacity of the samples for the uptake of tetrahydrofuran, chloroform, xylene, and n-hexane as organic solvents and kerosene as an industrial oil, as well as their separation ability for chloroform and edible oil from water, were investigated. According to the results and observations, the PU@ACB sponge composite exhibited higher sorption capacity than the pure PU. The outcomes revealed that the PU@ACB sponge composite demonstrated comparable or even better sorption capacity contrasted with other PU-based composites.