Ultrasonic-assisted fabrication of starch/MWCNT-glucose nanocomposites for drug delivery
The principal focus of this investigation is to prepare starch nanocomposite (NC) films containing multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and apply these NCs for drug delivery. Firstly, to raise the hydrophilicity of carboxyl functionalized MWCNT, the surface of them was modified with d-glucose (Gl) as a low cost and environmentally friendly biomolecule. Different percentages of MWCNT-Gl (0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) were embedded in starch matrix through sonochemical method as an economical, fast, eco-friendly, and effective method. The properties of starch/MWCNT-Gl NCs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Afterwards, pure starch and starch/MWCNT-Gl NCs were reacted with oleic acid to obtain amphiphilic (Amph) esters. Except Amph obtained from pure starch, other Amph esters could convert to drug-loaded nanoparticles which were characterized by dynamic light scattering and TEM. The sizes of nanoparticles depended on the value of MWCNT-Gl. The thinnest particles obtained from starch/MWCNT-Gl NCs containing the highest value of MWCNT-Gl (2 wt%), and this system was chosen for measurement of entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro release study for zolpidem as a hydrophobic drug model.