A review of current coupling agents for modification of metal oxide nanoparticles
In recent years, metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have gained an increasing interest because of their unique size dependent properties; examples include electrical, magnetic, mechanical, optical and chemical properties, which largely differ from those of their bulk materials. The metal oxide NPs are used in a wide range of applications in various fields, such as medicine, energy storage, catalysis, food packaging, optoelectronic devices, semiconductor devices, aerospace, and sensing. One of the main problems of metal oxide NPs associated with different surface structures and surface interactions are represented by a high tendency of metal oxide NPs to adhesion and aggregation. The use of coupling agents is a good alternative to overcome this problem. This paper reviews the application of coupling agents for the modification of metal oxide NPs and summarizes the interaction between metal oxide NPs and coupling agents.