Design and characterization of novel poly(vinyl chloride) nanocomposite films with zinc oxide immobilized with biocompatible citric acid
Herein, first ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were modified with citric acid (CA) to prevent agglomeration and achieve good dispersion of NPs in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix along with controlling the size. Different concentrations of modified ZnO-CA NPs were used to fabricate PVC/ZnO-CA nanocomposite films, and the obtained materials were characterized by several techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical test and thermal analysis were also carried out on PVC/ZnO-CA nanocomposite films. The ultrasonic irradiation—which is an environmentally safe procedure—was applied for all cases.